“Few of us would question that social and economic empowerment is related to being able to use the spoken and written forms of language effectively. Those who can use the language forms which the culture values are able to exert more control over their lives than those who can’t. Given this relationship between language control and empowerment it is important for teachers to understand the processes involved in getting control of different kinds of textual forms.”
Brian Cambourne and Hazel Brown in 1987 cited in SAPPA
When is a writer successful ?
A writer is successful if they can create a text that achieves its purpose by communicating to its audience the message it was meant to convey in context. A text is a series of semantic choices created in a social context and can be assessed as effective in two main areas: register and text structure.
Janet Freeman Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms (chapter 6)
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**Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classes**

Author, Margery Hertzberg. ISBN, 978-1-875622-85-6. Date of Publication, [[tel:01/11/ 2011|01/11/ 2011]]. Pages, 192. Description, This book addresses English language ...
A successful writer is someone with:
1.an understanding of the context of situation and context of culture
2.a clear and authentic purpose for writing
3.a wide knowledge of the field they are writing about
4.an understanding of the structure and the grammar required to accurately create that text type
5.an understanding of the difference between the written and spoken modes of communication
6.the English knowledge to manipulate the language to suit their purpose in context
7.a clear idea as to who their audience will be
8.the confidence to write!

Planning for writing teaching
• In order for students to develop academic language they need to first be asked to ‘notice’ the target language. Students need substantial exposure to the target language in context.
• Students then need to ‘recycle’ the target language through a range of group and pair activities that involve talking about the topic. This way, they hear it and say it in context.
• Once students have seen, heard, said, read and written the target language in the context of the topic, through a range of suitable activities, they may feel ready to ‘recast’ the target language in a less contextualised setting such as independent writing.
• Once students have completed an independent piece of writing, they need opportunities to reflect on their writing with peers and the teacher in order to ‘consolidate’ this understanding.

For more information see presentation below at
Janet Freeman, Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classes: Focus on Writing (10 MB)

Text types